Inequality – of economic resources and power – presents a number of political and social dilemmas. Vigorous debates of domestic public policy abound regarding such topics as redistribution, entitlement programs, healthcare and education disparities, racial reparations, student debt and immigration, to name a few. In foreign policy, the plight of billions of people across the globe in the face of famine, epidemics and political violence raises important questions regarding the proper use of American wealth and military capabilities abroad. Christian thinkers and activists have long considered the challenges posed by inequalities of money and power, and these are common themes preached from the pulpit, but consensus views remain elusive. Moreover, Christian individuals and organizations are frequently regarded as part of the problem or part of the solution, depending on the issue. Regardless of one’s own faith background, understanding the various positions that Christians have taken on challenges related to inequality as well as understanding what social science scholarship can tell us about the implications of those positions can equip us to thoughtfully engage these policy debates with profound consequences.